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Below you can find meanings and explanations for various abbreviations and terms used in our products and manuals:

ADB - Android Debug Bridge - allows the user to communicate and control their Android device using Windows/Linux/macOS command line.

AFU - “After first unlock” is after the device has been unlocked by entering the pin, pattern or passcode.

API - Application Programming Interface - a set of clearly defined methods of communication between various software programs.

BF or BFA - Brute force (attack), refers to bypassing or attacking and breaking a password, usually either a screen lock or a backup password.

BFU - Before first unlock is before the device has been unlocked by entering the pin, pattern or passcode.

Bootloader - enables the installed operating system to boot and startup while it verifies that all the software is genuine.

CDMA - Code-division multiple access. Older radio communication method common in the USA as an alternative to GSM.

Chipset - Commonly used term for “System-on-chip”.

CWM - ClockWorkMod recovery - another custom Android recovery.

DFU - Device Firmware Upgrade mode allows all devices to be restored from any state.

Download mode - Samsung's alternative for Fastboot, requires Odin or Heimdall to communicate with PC.

EDL - Emergency Download mode. This is the special mode through which users can perform various tasks like unbricking, unlocking the bootloader, and the installation of any custom ROMs.

Fastboot - diagnostic protocol included with the SDK package. Used primarily to modify the flash filesystem of Android devices via USB connection from the host computer.

FBE - File-based encryption.

FDE - Full disk encryption.

FRP - Factory Reset Protection - prevents the user from unlocking the phone if it was previously reset without removing the Google account.

GSM - Global System for Mobile Communications is an older protocol for digital cellular communication.

Hotkey combination - a combination of keys used to boot into either recovery or Fastboot mode on Android devices.

HTML - Hypertext Markup Language -  is the standard markup language for creating web pages and web applications.

ICCID - Integrated Circuit Card Identifier - the number used to identify SIM cards.

IMEI - International Mobile Equipment Identity - a unique number to identify mobile devices.

IMSI - International Mobile Subscriber Identity - is used to identify the user of a cellular network.

iOS - the mobile operating system used exclusively in Apple devices such as iPhones and iPads.

MAC - Media Access Control - a unique identifier assigned to network interfaces for communications at the data link layer of a network segment.

MTK - MediaTek - manufacturer of semiconductors (chipsets).

MTP - Media Transfer Protocol - protocol for transfer of media files to and from a portable device.

ODIN - Odin is a utility software developed and used by Samsung internally. It is used to communicate with Samsung devices in Odin mode (also called download mode).

OEM - Original Equipment Manufacturer.

PTP - Photo Transfer Protocol.

RSA - Rivest-Shamir-Adleman cryptosystem, an encryption algorithm.

SIM - Subscriber identity module in the form of an integrated circuit card.

Spreadtrum - aka UNISOC - Chinese chipset often found in lower-cost devices.

SOC - System-on-chip is the microchip that includes the necessary circuits to run the hardware and software on a device. All the components are integrated into one chip, CPU, graphics, memory etc. Also known as the chipset.

TWRP - Team Win Recovery Project - one of the custom recoveries for Android devices.

UFED - Universal Forensic Extraction Device.

UFDR - UFED Physical Analyzer Report Package.

USB - Universal Serial Bus - an industry standard for cables, connection, communication, and power supply.

XML - Extensive Markup Language - defines a set of rules for encoding documents both human and machine-readable.

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